When, durante 1420, Filippo Brunelleschi was nominated superintendent of the construction of the cupola of the Florentine cathedral of Santa Maria del Apice, the lines along which the construction was to be carried out had already been determined by what had been done previously (Arnolfo, Talenti)
The diameter of the inner span (m. ) is close onesto the maximum limit for any kind of masonry dome. From the times of the Tempio there had been giammai examples of cupolas of such size. Faith con these structures had been seriously undermined by the collapse, per 1346, of the dome of Hagia Sophia mediante Constantinople. Sopra 1400 the Florentines had had onesto reinforce the structures of the Baptistery which had shown signs of giving way.
Instead of recuperating precedent techniques, Brunelleschi invented verso technique based on his knowledge of the «way of building» of the Romans as well as medieval (eastern) examples which he put at the service of verso new concept and new kinds of technical, cultural, aesthetic problems, involved con the realization of the cupola. Basically the construction of the dome depended on the use of verso building technique capable of avoiding any dangerous discontinuity durante the masonry (27,000 tons) and which would be able sicuro circumvent the enormous problems involved per constructing verso traditional wooden armature of the necessary dimensions. Brunelleschi’s structure of bricks laid sopra herringbone courses consisted of raising the wall per rings, each containing vertical elements for bonding the successive ring. The cupola was thus built as a self supporting growing form.
Con their internal tension, the thrust and dynamic form (pointed arch and elliptical sector) engender verso calculated equilibrium, per cupola that hovers and is suspended over the city, the result of the balance of all the forces
The dome is surprisingly modern: in this double shell, the lighter exterior cupola protects the inner cupola from the elements, while the two work together thanks puro the powerful connecting ribs. The detachment from the figurative solutions of Gothic architecture is evident particularly on the outside in the refusal of multiple forces (free standing spires, etc.), con the rigor with which the convergence of the forces upwards is pursued, entrusting the formal solution onesto per formidable synthesis of continuous lines and accessory surfaces resulting per unity and free from any need puro adapt puro the more articulated and minute design of the structure underneath.
The first powerful expression of per conscious synthesis of two cultural worlds, Greek and Gothic, the cupola can mediante the end be defined as per fine diaphragm stretched between an external and an internal space, per diaphragm between one space and another. The city is mai longer per framework marked by the emergence of vertical points of reference (towers and campanili): the cupola, per its size and form, stands out and dominates everything else. log in elite singles The towers and the campanili (including Giotto’s) all now relate preciso each other as per result of their relationship puro the cupola which hovers between rooftops and sky at the center of the urban system and automatically become subordinate elements per a general plan.
The full meaning of this urban masterpiece, the cupola is beautifully expressed mediante Leon Battista Alberti’s splendid, synthetic definition con the context of the dedication of his treatise Della Pittura onesto Brunelleschi: «rising above the skies, ample esatto cover with its shadow all the Tuscan people». «Rising above» on the one hand expresses the meaning of the tension con the generating line chosen for the ribs, on the other the fact that the cupola is not dominated by the universal space but creates verso space of its own which establishes all rapports and measures with respect puro itself. «Ample» expresses the fundamental qualification of distension and circularity of the hovering cupola, while on the other hand with «ample puro» it immediately leads sicuro the concept per which the size of this urban structure is seen per relation puro the territory. Moreover, the contrast established between the two terms («rising above» — «ample puro») expresses with marvelous conciseness the solution of all the forces, all the structures, all the equilibriums, of all the proportions both within itself and mediante relationship onesto the city, all the technical and structural problems, durante the absolute abstraction and per the tension of the line of its ciclocampestre section, etc. Lastly, Alberti’s words logorio the fact that the new formal dimensions also correspond esatto the new political dimension of the city.